Science

Posted: October 27, 2019 in education, inspiring, Mathematics, philosophy, Science

science_maths

If you find science boring, you’re learning it from a wrong teacher!

 

Rules of good scientific practice

  1. See failure as a beginning.
  2. Never stop learning.
  3. Assume nothing, question everything.
  4. Teach others what you know.
  5. Analyze objectively.
  6. Practice humility.
  7. Respect constructive criticism.
  8. Take initiative.
  9. Give credit where it’s due.
  10. Love what you do.

Nature

Posted: July 8, 2019 in inspiring, philosophy

nature-environment-conservation

“Man is the most insane species. He worships an invisible God and destroys a visible Nature. Unaware that this Nature he’s destroying is this God he’s worshiping.”
― Hubert Reeves

Mother

Posted: May 26, 2017 in philosophy
Tags: ,

Of this union of the five (primal) elements in me due to my birth as a human being, the mother is the (chief) cause as the firestick of fire.

There is no shelter (protection against the sun) like the mother. There is no refuge like the mother. There is no defence like the mother. There is no one so dear as the mother.

For having borne him in her womb the mother is the son’s Dhatri.
For having been the chief cause of his birth, she is his Janani.
For having nursed his young limbs into growth, she is called Amva.
For bringing forth a child possessed of courage she is called Virasu.
For nursing and looking after the son she is called Sura.

The mother is one’s own body.

Reference
Mahabharata, Mokshadharma Parva – CCLXVI

m2

Śulbasūtras are collection of sanskrit works from the vedic period which supplements kalpa as appendices. kalpa is one of the six veda-angas which deals with procedures to perform vedic rituals. Śulbasūtras provide as the source of ancient Indian mathematics in the area of geometry developed during the vedic period.

The mathematics in the vedic period should not be confused with the 20th century work titled “Vedic Mathematics” by former Shankaracharya of Puri, the late Jagadguru Swami Shri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj. Tirthaji’s “Vedic Mathematics” is neither vedic nor mathematics of any significant importance except for some alternate methods in arithmetics and elementary algebra. The title of the work is actually a misleading one, and people without understanding the facts propagate it as something from ancient Indian epistemology. The claim that the sanskrit aphorisms mentioned in his text were from the appendix (parishishta) of Atharva-Veda is controversial, and so far, no versions of Atharva-Veda contained such aphorisms. Since the book was published posthumously, we are not sure whether the author or the editor is to be blamed for such a misleading book title. For a more detailed discussion about this topic, please refer to the article titled “Myths and reality : On ‘Vedic mathematics’ ” by S.G. Dani, a renowned mathematician at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India.

The importance of mathematics were indeed well cherished in ancient Indian mathematical works, and the Jyothisha-Vedanga (attributed with Rig-Veda) glorifies mathematics as follows:

yatha shikha mayurānam nāgānām maṇayo yatḥa |
taḍvad vedāṅga shāstrāṅām gañitham mūrdhin stḥitḥam ||

“Like the crest of the peacock, like the gem in the hood of the king cobra, so is mathematics the top-head of all branches of science/knowledge”.

The geometry in Śulbasūtras particularly laid out details for the design and construction of fire altars for vedic rituals. The vast corpus of works developed in Śulbasūtras are mainly attributed to Baudhāyana, Mānava, Āpastamba and Kātyāyana. The oldest being developed by Baudhāyana during 800 BCE, and the youngest by Kātyāyana during 200 BCE.

One of the most significant work which gained popularity among contemporary mathematician is the statement about hypotenuse theorem (which is currently called as Pythagoras Theorem) contained in Baudhāyana Śulbasūtras which belongs to Taittiriya branch of the Krishna Yajur-Veda.  Though, Baudhāyana did not wrote proof to his theorem, he laid out the sūtra as follows:

dīrgha chaturasrasya akṣaṇayā rajjuḥ pārśvamānī tiryagmānī cha
yat pṛthagbhūte kurutah tat ubhayāṅ karoti. (Chapter 1, sutra 12)

A rope stretched along the diagonal of a rectangle makes a squared length which is made by the squared lengths of the horizontal and vertical sides of the rectangle together.

Other important concepts contained in Śulbasūtras are as follows:
1) Pythagorean triples.
2) Formula to find square roots.
3) Finding a circle whose area is same as a square.
4) Diagonals of rectangle bisecting each other.
5) Diagonals of rhombus bisecting at right angles.
6) Areas associated with squares, rectangles and rhombus.
7) Methodology to handle fractions.

Further reading:
http://www.math.cornell.edu/~dwh/papers/sulba/sulba.html
http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/Ch4_2.html

The negative energy which manifests within an individual, and consequently, a negative energy within the society is basically due to the imbalance of human mind. This imbalance of mind eventually leads to sufferings. Every life is an integral part of the divine, and is capable of rising to experience the bliss. This capability is dormant with some, and with others they are active, or more conducive to be activated quickly. To bring the mind to a balance towards activating the bliss, the following 13 impurities of mind should be controlled which are the root cause of suffering:

1) Ragam: desire to indulge in recreational sexual activities rather than for procreation.
2) Dvesham: to take revenge on those who disturbed us or inflicted pain.
3) Kamam: desires or passion for materialistic pleasure.
4) Krodham: anger, or restlessness due to unfulfilled desire.
5) Lobham: unwillingness to give or share with others.
6) Moham: blind towards distinguishing good and bad while satisfying the desire.
7) Madham: arrogance in achieving the desire based on wealth and power.
8) Maatsaryam: envy/jealousy upon the success/achievement of others.
9) Irshya: thoughts about why do I experience this sorrow and not others.
10) Asuya: indignation at the merits or goodness of another.
11) Dambham: pretending to do good things for publicity/popularity (hypocritical/deceitful).
12) Darpam: pride in believing that no one else can match with one’s quality or skill.
13) Ahamkaram: impudent or insolent behavior.

Even if any one of the above impurity dominates the mind, we end-up driving ourselves to inauspicious circumstances eventually. We should learn to eradicate any impurity arising in our mind at its beginning stage itself. Then, we will be able to put ourselves in auspicious circumstances to experience the divine bliss.